Учебно-методическая разработка "Суффиксы и приставки в английском языке"


МОУ «Лицей г.Козьмодемьянска»










Суффиксы и приставки в английском языке


Учебно-методическая разработка



Апаласова Надежда Михайловна,

учитель английского языка

МОУ «Лицей г.Козьмодемьянска»

Республики Марий эл









г.Козьмодемьянск

2011

Данная учебно-методичесая разработка предназначена для учащихся старших классов средних общеобразовательных школ.

Ее целью является дальнейшее развитее и совершенствование у учащихся практических умений и навыков в распознавании и употреблении суффиксов и приставок в английском языке.


























Содержание


1.Введение

2.Суффиксы

2.1 Суффиксы существительных

2.2 Суффиксы прилагательных

2.3 Суффиксы наречий

2.4 Суффиксы глаголов

2.5 Приставки

3. Тренировочные упражнения

4.Ключи




















1. Введение

Данная разработка посвящена одному из способов словообразования, а именно образованию новых слов при помощи аффиксов и имеет целью развивать умения и навыки учащихся в употреблении приставок и суффиксов различных частей речи.

В работе представлены типичные приставки и суффиксы таких частей речи, как существительных, прилагательных, наречий и глаголов. Они представлены в отдельных разделах, каждый из которых содержит:

1) список суффиксов или приставок, сопровождаемый пояснениями;

2) упражнения различного характера на образование новых слов.

Раздел, содержащий приставки, состоит из списка приставок с пояснениями и упражнений, предназначенных для их первичного закрепления.

Правильность выполнения заданий проверяется по ключам, представленным в последней части разработки.

В ходе подготовки настоящей работы были использованы следующие источники:

1) V.Evans, J.Dooley, Upstream/Pre-Intermediate, 2004

2) B.Obee,V.Evans,Upstream/Upper Intermediate,

3) V.Evans,J.Dooley, Enterprise/Intermediate

4) V.Evans, J.Dooley,Mission 1, 2000

5) M.Harris, D.Mover,A. Sikorzynska, Opportunities/Upper Intermediate, 2002

6) Практическая грамматика английского языка,К.Н.Качалова. Е.Е.Израилевич.-М.:Юнвес, 2002

Разработка предназначена для самостоятельной работы учащимся

средних общеобразовательных учреждений и лицам, стремящимся совершенствовать свои знания, умения и навыки в области словообразования.




2.Суффиксы

Прибавление суффикса обычно не меняет смысловое содержание слова, но при этом слова часто переходят из одной части речи в другую и в словаре приводятся отдельной статьей. Или же в одной словарной статье указывается, с каким суффиксом может использоваться данное слово, и что получается в результате прибавления к нему этого суффикса.

В английском языке не существует какой-либо системы, поддающейся изучению и строго определяющей, какое именно слово и с каким суффиксом можно использовать. Поэтому главным помощником изучающего язык в этом вопросе должен быть словарь.

Некоторые суффиксы совпадают по виду и звучанию, но могут быть признаками разных частей речи.

2.1 Суффиксы существительных

Существительные могут быть образованы от глаголов с помощью с помощью суффиксов: -age(drain-drainage), -al(propose-proposal), -ance(hinder- hindrance), -ation(investigate- investigation), -ence(refer-reference), -ion(protect-protection),-ment9emply-employment),-sion(decide-decision), -sis(analyse-analysis), -tion(repeat- repetition), -y(injure-injury)

Существительные могут быть образованы от прилагательных с помощью суффиксов: -ance(arrogant- arrogance), -cy(fluent-fluency), -ence(patient- patientce), -ion(desperate-desperatoin), -iness(lonely- loneliness), -ity(familiar-familiarity), -ment(content-contentment), -ty(anxious- anxiety), -y(honest- honesty).

Суффиксы ance- , -tion, -ment используются при образовании существительных от глаголов и употребляются для обозначения действий, процессов, состояний.

Образуйте от следующих глаголов существительные, используя суффиксы –ance, -tion, -ment:

1.enjoy 5. amaze

2. celebrate 6. compete

3. perform 7. engage

4. decorate 8. ignore

(Ответ: enjoyment, celebration, performance, decoration, amazement, competition, engagement, ignorance).

2.1.1. Закончите предложения, вставляя полученные существительные:

1. The little girl stared at the pumpkin lantern in ….

2. We would like to invite you to our … party.

3. The musician gave an amazing … on stage.

4. Sarah and Jim put up all the … on the Christmas tree.

5. Ronaldo won first prize in the dance ….

Чтобы обозначить людей, совершающих действие, выраженное корнем

слова, мы добавляем–ar, -er, -or, -ee к основе глагола, или –ist, -ian к

основе глагола или существительного: employ- employee, lie-liar, drive-driver, act-actor, art- artist, music- musician.

Суффикс –ian обозначает национальность или звание и профессию: Russian (русский), musician (музыкант).

2.1.2. Закончите предложения, употребляя сова в правильной форме:

He was a (music) and came from America. It was not typical of an (America) to earn a living playing the violin. But he was so talented that people listened to him paying no (attend) to what he looked like. He seemed to be like a (magic).


Russian (русский), musician (музыкант); Суффикс –ist обозначает лицо, деятеля, представителя профессии, последователя теории, метода, направления:

colonist, artist, socialist

2.1.3. Образуйте существительные от следующих слов:

  1. translate 5 piano 9.music

  2. art 6. conduct

  3. act 7. write

  4. biology 8. paint

(Ответ: translator, artist, actor, biologist, piano, conductor, writer, painter).

2.1.4. Закончите предложения, используя полученные существительные:

1. A … is a person who translates texts or speech from one language to another.

2. An … artist is a person the part of a character in a play, film, on TV, etc.

3. A … is a person who studies the life of organisms and plants.

4. A … is a person who plays the piano.

5. A … is a person who conducts an orchestra.

6. A … is a person who writes short stories, novels, etc.

7. A … is a person who paints.

Суффикс –ure используется при образовании абстрактных существительных и соответствует словам в русском языке, оканчивающимся на – ура:

mix- mixture text- texture

create- creature fail- failure

press- pressure


Этот же суффикс может означать процесс:

to press (давить) - рrеssure ['pre] (давление);


Суффикс –ee используется при образовании существительных, имеет страдательное значение, т.е. это тот, кто подвергается воздействию:

interview- interviewee refuge- refugee

employ- employee


Суффикс –ism обозначает определенное учение, направление в искусстве, литературе, общественную формацию, особенность, состояние:

realism, socialism, heroism

Суффикс –(i)ty обозначает состояние, положение, качество, свойство:

activity, reality

Суффикс –ment обозначает действие, результат действия, средство, процесс, состояние:

development, enjoyment

Суффикс –ness обозначает качество, состояние:

darkness, coldness

Суффикс –ance(ence) обра разует отвлеченные существительные, обозначающие действие, а также состояние и качество:

assistance, correspondence

-ity - соответствует русскому суффиксу "-ость":

active (активный) - activity (активность);

-ment - обозначает действие:

to move (двигаться) - movement (движение);

-nеss - передает состояние, качество:

dark (темный) - darkness (темнота);

-ure (-ture, -sure):

culture ['kl] (культура), lecture ['lek] (лекция).

Этот же суффикс может означать процесс:

to press (давить) - рrеssure ['pre] (давление);

-ship - передает состояние, свойство:

friend (друг) - friendship (дружба);

-th –изменяет написание и произношение слова:

strong-strength; deep- depth

2.1.5. Закончите предложения, употребляя слова в правильной форме:

The (deep) of the lake was unknown. Many people avoid it because of its (wide) and (long). The (strong) of the current of the river which flowed in did not play any role in the (grow) of its life. The (dark) of its water was frightening..


2.2 Cсуффиксы прилагательных

Тпичными суффиксами прилагательных, образованных от существительных и глаголов являются:

-able fashionable -ical mechanical

-al magical -iuos rebelliuos

-ant hesitant -ish stylish

- ar spectacular -ist racist

-ary disciplinary -ive selective

-ate considerate -less faultless

-ial artificial -like woman-like

-ent persistent -ly deathly

-esque picturesque -ory sensory

-ful successful -ous humorous

-ian Iranian -some bothersome

-ible terrible -y sandy

-ic melodic

2.2. 1. Образуйте прилагательные, используя суффиксы:


-ial, -ive, ual, -able, -ary, -ent

read, president, persist; persuade, attract, vision, residence, station


Суффиксы –ful и –less используются при образовании прилагательных от существительных и обозначают, что то, что выражено существительным, есть (суффикс–ful) или нет (суффикс– less, что также соответствует приставке без - в русском языке).

Образуйте прилагательные от следующих существительных, используя приставки –ful и less:

1. help

2. taste

3. joy

4. meaning

5. mind

6. care

2.2.2. Закончите предложения, используя полученные прилагательные:

1. Steven’s crashed his car again! What a … driver!

2. The Irish are … people who love music and dancing.

3. She always wears stylish clothes and … jewellery.

4. Some s sentences in this piece of writing are completely ….

2.2.3. Закончите предложения, используя слова в правильной форме:

  1. The forest is very … (peace) on Sunday mornings.

  2. Oh, don’t worry about the dogs; they are …. (harm).

  3. My grandmother still manages to look … (youth) at 64.She says that her secret is not to worry about … (meaning) things in life.

  4. Te key to my father’s ….(success) career as a businessman was to avoid making ….(care) mistakes.

  5. It’s … (point) for me to give you any… (help) advice if you ‘re not prepared to follow it.


2.2.4. Используйте слова в правильной форме:

1. attract

-Using this polish on your car will give its surface an … shine.

-Apart from the rock concert, there ere several other … at the festival.

2. pass

-The escaped prisoner took a hostage and demanded safe … out of the country.

-After the heavy snow, the mountain roads were ….

3. beauty

-Flower arrangements help to … a house.

-The talented … decided to open her own salon.

4. sign

-This cheque is …, so I’m afraid the bank cannot cash it

-The anti-hunting group collected over 5,000 … on its petition.

-It is hoped that the … of the agreement will take place tomorrow.

5. like

-The restaurant was too sophisticated for my ….

-Marianna bears a strong … to her father.

6. terror

-Blowing up the ambassador’s car was an act of … condemned by the government.

-I’ve just heard the news about the … train crash.

7. stop

-Once Ruth starts talking about her cats, she’s ….

-Factory workers have voted for daily 3-hour … in protest at the planned pay cuts.

8. head

-The article had a rather uninspiring ….

-She tripped and fell … down the stairs.

2.2.4: 1.attracrive/attractions; 2. passage/impassable; 3. beautify/ beautician; 4. unsigned/signatures/signing; 5. liking/likeness; 6. terrorism/terrible; 7. unstoppable/stoppages; 8. headline/ heading; headlong)




Суффикс – en при прибавлении к существительному образует относительное прилагательное:

wood — wooden;

gold — golden


Суффиксы –ive, -ous, -able, -ible используются при образовании прилагательных от существительных и глаголов.

2.2.5 Образуйте прилагательные от следующих слов:

  1. .fame 8. collect

  2. adventure 9.memory

  3. enjoy 10.inform

  4. protect 11.express

  5. talk 12.danger

  6. admire 13. horror

  7. humour

(Ответ: famous, adventurous, enjoyable, protective, talkative, admirable, humorous, collective, collectable, memorable, informative, expressive, dangerous, horrible)).

2.2.6. Заполните пропуски полученными словами:

  1. Sherlock Holmes is probably the most … detective in literature.

  2. That clown has a very … face.

  3. Tom is quiet, but John is quite ….

  4. Mad” is a (n) … magazine that makes you laugh your head off!

2.2.7. Заполните пропуски словами в правильной форме:

  1. I must sell my car, so I will accept any … (reason) offers.

  2. In order to lose weight< one must follow a … (sense) diet.

  3. Cindy is … (response) for keeping the accounts in her office.

  4. This sofa is very soft and … (comfort).

  5. She always wears very … (fashion) clothes).

  6. I don’t think the excuse he made for being late was … (believe).

Суффикс –y используется при образовании прилагательных от существительных, используется для обозначения природных условий, состояний человека.

-у - образует прилагательные со значением "имеющий данное качество":


dirt (грязь) - dirty (грязный).

2.2.8. Заполните пропуски словами в правильной форме:

  1. The … (salt) chips made me quite … (thirst).

  2. The weather in Florida was... (cloud) and … (rain), so the ground was damp and…(mud).

Fill l in the gaps in the text with suitable word derived from the word in brackets:



2.3. Суффиксы наречий

-lу - самый продуктивный суффикс, образующий наречия от прилагательных:

loud (громкий) - loudly (кромко);

right (правильный) - rightly (правильно);

-ward(s) - образует наречия, указывающие на то, в каком направлении совершается действие:

back (задний) - backward ['bkwd] (назад);

in (в) - inward ['inwd] (внутрь).

2.4 Суффиксы глаголов:

-fy:

clear — clarify;

justice — justify

-ize / -ise:

memory — memorize / memorise;

legal — legalize / legalise

при прибавлении к прилагательному / существительному образует глагол:

wide — widen;

length — lengthen


2.5.Префиксы.

Имеют (за редким исключением) собственное смысловое содержание. При прибавлении к слову изменяют в той или иной степени его значение и поэтому в словаре приводятся в виде отдельной статьи. В некоторых случаях пишутся слитно, в некоторых — через дефис.

Типичными приставками прилагательных являются:

a - asexual

ab- abnormal

anti- => противо antisocial

dis- disinterested

hyper- сверх- hyperactive

il- отрицательное значение illegible

im- отрицательное значение immortal

in- отрицательное значение inactive

ir- отрицательное значение irresponsible

mal- maladjusted

non- не-: non-existent

over- сверх- / nepe-: overweight

pre- до- / пред-: prearranged

pro- pro-war

sub- sub-zero

super- superhuman

un- unavailable

under- недо- / под- / мало-; обратное значение over-:

understaffed

со- => со-: co-author;

contra- => противо-: contraception; contradict

сounter- => противо- / контр-: counter-attack;

de- — противоположное значение: to degenerate,

to deform

dis- — противоположное значение: dishonest;

to disagree; disagreement

en- / em-; при присоединении к существительному / прилагательному образует глагол: to enlarge, to enrage, to embody, to embrace

in- => внутри-; обратное значение out:

inputoutput => вход — выход (в аппаратуре / программировании / ...);

in-patient => больной стационара;

out-patient => амбулаторный больной;

in-laws => родственники со стороны мужа / жены

inter- => взаимо- / меж- / интер-: interdependent, intercontinental, international

mis- => выполнять действие неправильно: to misunderstand, to misuse,

post- => после-: post-war, postscript

re- => пере-(делать) / сделать заново: to remarry, to relocate

sub- => под-: subway, sub-conscious, sub-committee

2.5.1 Переведите слова с in-, im-, ir-, il-, dis-, sub-, under- and over- на русский :

inexpensive, imperfect, irreplaceable, unaffordable, illogical dishonest, misjudge, substandard, underestimate, overspend

2.5.2 Образуйте новее слова, используя приставки:

experienced, human, worked, sold, conscious, valued, normal, valuable, mature, rational, loaded, liked, legible, cook, developed, look, use, charge, fund, dress, line.

Приставки il-,im-, in- соответствует приставке

не - в русском языке. Приставка il- присоединяется к словам с основой на «l». приставка «ir—к основам на «r», а приставка «im»- к основам на «m» . «b», «p».

2.5.3 Образуйте антонимы от следующих слов, используя приставки:

il-, un-, dis-, in-, im-

common, flexible, movable, emotional, pleased, probable, agreeable, patient, legal, approachable

2.5.4. Образуйте антонимы, используя приставки il-,im-,in-,ir-:

1. patient 6. legal

2. possible 7. secure

3. responsible 8. complete

4. logical 9. rational

5. mature 10. indiscreet

2.5.5. Закончите предложения, используя некоторые из полученных слов:

1. I’m sorry, but I can’t meet you at 8:00. It’s …..

2. It was very … of you to leave your sister to come home by herself.

3. After losing her job, Diana started feeling very ….

4. It’s… to buy souvenirs made from endangered species.

5. This list is …. There are some names missing.

Приставка re- означает повторное действие или повторный процесс, приставка

inter- используется с глаголами и существительными и обозначает что-то , соединяющее два или более мест, предметов или групп людей.

2.5.6. Образуйте новые слова от следующих слов:

1. Change 4. start

2. appear 5. national

3. charge 6. arrange

(Ответ: interchange, reappear, recharge, restart, international, rearrange)

2.5.7. Заполните пропуски полученными словами:

  1. British Airways is offering a discount on …………….. flights this month!

  2. My battery is low. I have to …………… my phone.

  3. The teacher ………………. the desks to make space for the meeting.

  4. I thought I’d lost my files, but they ………………… when I restarted my computer.

2.5.8 Заполните пропуски , используя слова в правильной форме:

    1. Johnny can’t make decisions easily; he is … (decisive).

    2. The salesman was extremely … as he did not answer any of our questions (helpful).

    3. Don’t believe what he says; he is … (honest).

    4. You cannot depend on him to help you with your work; he is … (responsible).

    5. John’s last statement did not make any sense. I thought it was completely …. (logical).

    6. Although he is fifty years old, he still behaves like a child. Everyone agrees that he is … (mature).

Приставки: over- соответствует пере - в русском языке, sub- соответствует под-, может означать «меньше или менее важно»; de- означает «сделать что-то меньше, уменьшить, снизить»; down- означает движение вниз»; under- соответствует приставке недо- в русском языке; re- означает «повторное действие, повторный процесс»; un- соответствует приставке не- в русском языке; semi- означает «половина чего-либо или частично»; multi- означает «много»; mis- означает «делать что-то плохо или неправильно».

2.5.9 Соотнесите подчеркнутые приставки сих значениями, данными под буквами:

1. overpopulation, overgrown, oversleep

2. substandard, subway, submarine

3. deforestation, defuse, dehydration

4. downhill, downstream, downgrade

5. undermourished, underpaid, undercooked

6. rebuild, replace, rewind

7. unstable, unusual, uncommon

8. semi-active. semi- circle, semi- final

9. multinational, multi-purpose, multi-racial

10. mismanagement, misunderstand, misplace

a) again f) opposite of an action

b) badly g) not enough

c) below h) downwards

d) too much i) opposite of an adjective

e) many j) partly/ half

2.5.10 Закончите предложения словами из упражнения 2.5.9:

  1. After the storm they had to 1) … hundreds of houses which had been damaged.

  2. Many people in the developing world suffer from diseases because they are 2) ….

  3. Our team was knocked out in the 3) … of the competition.

  4. The bomb was about to go off but the experts managed to 4) … it.

  5. I 5) … the question and failed the exam.

  6. I 6) … yesterday and arrived an hour late for class.

  7. A lot of houses collapsed in the earthquake because of 7) … construction.

  8. Floods are not 8) … these days; they happen more and more.

(Ответ: 1.rebuild; 2.undermourished; 3.semi-final; 4. defuse; 5. misunderstood; 6. overslept; 7. substandard; 8. unusual)

Приставки anti- означает «против», bi- - «два», inter- - «между, среди», mal- - «плохо». micro- -«маленький», mini- - «очень маленький», mono- - «один»,

post- - «после», pre- - «до». pro- - « перед, в поддержку кого-либо . чего-либо».


2.5.11 Закончите предложения словами, образованными с помощью приставок. Используйте словарь:

    1. He tends to be very boring. He’s got a1) … - tonous voice and he doesn’t listen to other people- conversation with him is just listening to his …-2)logue.

    2. In the 3) … -war period from 1945 to 190 she was a … -4)graduate student at Cambridge and did her doctoral thesis on the economics of developing countries.

    3. A minority of the 5) … -globalisation campaigners is very 6) … -social and has been involved in damaging property during demonstrations.

    4. She is completely 7) … -lingual in English and French, but she still doesn’t know how to ride a 8)…-cycle.

    5. He is going for an9) … -view with a big10) … -national aid organization.

    6. Using new 11) … -scopes which are much more effective, they have succeeded in producing an even smaller12) … -chip.

    7. He is very 13)… -American and loves everything about the place. He is especially14) … -Hollywood.

    8. The surgeon was condemned for15) …-practice, though he claimed that the accident had happened due to the16) …-function of the operating theatre.

    9. Some of the most important developments in the study of17) …-historic life in the area were made in the18) …-war period – between 1900 and 1914.

    10. A woman with a19) …-skirt got into the20) …-bus and sat down next to me.

(Ответ: 1.monotonuos; 2.monologue; 3. postwar; 4.postgauate; 5.anti-globalisation; 6.antisocial; 7. bilingual; 8. bicycle;9. interview; 10.international; 11.microscopes; 12.microchip; 13.pro-American;14. pro-Hollywood; 15. malpractice;16. malfunction.17.prehistoric;18. pre-war; 19.miniskirt; 20. minibus)

Приставка en- обозначает, что что-то или кто-то вводит в состояние, выраженное корнем слова: enrich- обогащать, т.е. вводить в состояние богатства.

Образуйте новые слова, используя приставку en-:

rich large

able joy

courage

danger


3. Тренировочные упражнения

3.1 Заполните словами в правильной форме:

Person/Noun


Verb



Adjective


Abstract Noun


tire

Tiring/tireless




leader


lead


leading


leadership




excel


excellent


excellence

competitor

compete

competitive

competition

contractor


contractual

contract


1. Although the job is not physically 1) (tire), it leaves me feeling exhausted at the end of the day.

2. He was praised for his 2) (tire) efforts to promote our ideals at and abroad.

3. The most important quality required for this managerial post is 3) (lead).

4. Mr. Brown is one of the country’s 4) (lead) authorities on industrial relations.

5. We were treated to an 5) (excel) supper of seafood and home-made pasta.

6. We are committed to pursuing 6) (excel) in providing for traveling business people.

7. We managed to outwit the 7) (compete) by launching our product early.

8. The team displayed a lot of8) (compete) spirit and that’s why they succeeded.

9. The building 9) (contract) failed to compete the new sports hall on time.

10. You have a 10) (contract) obligation to give us a month’s notice if you intend to leave.

Work and business

Word formation:

add added, addition, additional(ly)

apply (in)applicable, applied, applicant, application

commerce commercial(ly)

dedicate dedicated, dedication

employ (un)employd, (un)employable, (un)employement, employer, employee

qualify (un)qualified, qualifying, qualification

responsible irresponsible, (ir)responsibly, (ir)responsibility

work working, (un)workable, worker, works

3.2 Заполните словами в правильной форме:

Choosing the right career to suit your 1) … (personal) and one that lives up to your 2) … (expect) can be rather difficult. We usually take certain factors into 3) … (consider) when making such a 4) … (decide). First of all, what are the 5) … (require) of the job? You need to find out what 6) … (qualify) are necessary before you hand in your 7) … (apply) form. Then, think of your career prospects and consider whether there is ample 8) … (opportune) for 9) … (promote). Finally, you need to decide on the level of 10) … (responsible) you would be happy with and whether you will achieve a sense of job 11) … (satisfy) equal to the work you put in.

Most people’s political 1) … (active) is limited to voting in an 2) … (elect) every few years. Other, more committed, people regularly attend 3) … (demonstrate) about particular political issues. Then, there are those who enter into 4) … (correspond0 with the 5) … (politics) who represents them. They may write with 6) … (refer) to some national law which concerns them, with a 7) … (propose) for a change in party policy, or something concerned purely with local 8) … (govern) –anything, in fact, which they feel deserves the 9) … (attend) of their Member of Parliament. however, waiting for a reply requires a lot of 10) … (patient), and few would expect a profound and lengthy 11) … (analyse) of their original letter.

Great composers offer us a unique 1) … (interpret) of the world around us. Achieving this takes both 2)… (inspire) and a degree of 3) …(commit) that few of us possess. Shut away in the 4) … (private) of their studios, free from the 5) … (distract) of day-to-day concerns, they strive for the perfect 6) … (express) of what they know and feel. 7) … (Recognize) usually comes slowly, and being over-sensitive to 8) … (criticize) may lead to 9) … (discourage). On the other hand, enthusiastic praise from critics and the public can relieve the composer’s 10) … (isolate) and bring him or her a degree of 11) … (satisfy) that few but creative artists ever experience.

3.3 Заполните пропуски словами в правильной форме:

Factory Work

Factory work is often dull and 1) … (repeat) although it 2) … (general) isn’t difficult. Most people work on a 3) … (product) line, where individuals are responsible for the 4) … (complete) of one stage of a process. Much of the work doesn’t require training and is 5) … (skilled), although it helps if you have 6) … (patient). Some factory 6) … (work) enjoy their job because it provides regular hours and a 7) … (rely) income. They all have the 9) … (possible) of making friends, as factories are often large and have lots of 10) … (employ). Others claim that they are underpaid, and 11) … (frequent) scan the jobs column of local newspapers hoping to find something better.

Science and technology

Word formation: discover discovery

science scientist, (un)scientifical(ly)

technology technological(ly), technical(ly), technician, technique

research researcher

introduce introduction, introductory

possible impossible, (im)possibility, (m)possibly

invent inventor, invention


3.3. Заполните словами в правильной форме:

Neil Armstrong was born on August 5th, 1930 in Ohio, America, and was the first man to set foot on the moon. His studies at university were 1)… (sudden) interrupted in 1950 by the Korean War, in which he served as a pilot and was shot down. 2) …. (consequence) he was awarded three Air Medals. In 1955 he became a pilot for NASA, flying more than 1,000 hours while testing 3)… (vary) supersonic fighters and planes. A couple of years late, he joined the space programme and, in 1969, blasted off in the rocket, Apollo 2, with two other astronauts. Landing on the moon’s 4) … (dust) surface., Armstrong uttered those 5)…(forget) words, “That’s one step for man , one giant leap for mankind.” The astronauts collected samples from the moon and took 6) … (number) photographs. With Neil Armstrong’s momentous visit to the moon, the Americans had opened a new, 7) … (fascinate) era in mankind’s 8) … (explore) of the universe.

3.4. Заполните пропуски словами в правильной форме:

Charles Babbage was an important English 1) … (invent) who is 2) … (fame) for designing the first computer.

In 1823 the 3) … (govern) gave Babbage a large amount of money to design a mechanical 4) … (calculate) and he spent most of his working on the machine. During the 1830’s he developed plans for another machine which would later become the first modern computer. The machine had a huge memory to store complicated numbers.

5) … (fortunate), the designs for his computer were lost until 1937 when 6) … (luck), they were found. In 1991, British scientists 7) … (final) built a surprisingly accurate computer using Babbage’s designs and called it Difference Engine No. 2.

    1. . Заполните словами в правильной форме:

Albert Einstein once said:” Try not to become a man of success but rather try to become a man of value.’ The 1) (success) opera singer Barbara Hendricks is one of those people who have taken this saying to heart. Her 2) (music) career includes 3) (perform) such as singing at President Mitterrand’s memorial service in Notre Dame. However, these 4) (achieve) are almost overshadowed by her 5) (determine) to aid casualties of war. Her humanitarian efforts have taken her from the streets of Sarajevo to the war in Rwanda, where she has shown the 6) (able) to be not only 7) (help) but also 8) (compassion). In the past, she has also been able to arrange charity events as she has many contacts with 9) (fame) and 10) (power) people. Due to her 11) (commit) and 12) (dedicate) she has recently been awarded with the French Legion d’honneur.

3.6. Заполните пропуски словами в правильной форме:

Dinosaurs and Satellites

In the beginning, life appeared on our planet on a molecular scale and, very gradually, developed into multi-cell organisms that co-operated in colonies. Eventually, due to 1) (evolve), small complex mobile creatures emerged. Through a process of natural 2) (select) and supported by 3) (hospitality) climate, some species thrived and grew 4) (exceed) large- culminating in the reign of the dinosaurs.

The story of human 5) (explore) of space is not very different. For tens of thousands of years, mankind’s attempts at understanding the cosmos were restricted to 6) (puzzle) observations made from the surface of our planet. Small but essential steps were taken and, as human technology mushroomed, we jumped out of our biosphere for the first time. Nearer to home, we placed a 7) (man) outpost on the edge of space to observe our planet’s 8) behave) and provide communications. The satellites now orbiting the earth have evolved rapidly and, like the dinosaurs before them, have become larger and still larger.

3.7 Заполните пропуски в правильной форме:

The Power of the Mind

Scientists have recently become interested in strange 1) … (psychology) powers. A professor at Edinburgh University is leading an 2) … (investigate) into the most 3) … (mystery) aspect of the brain’s 4) … (able). He has chosen a controversial and 5) … (surprise) subject – telepathy. Direct mind-to-mind 6) … (communicate) is when one person knows what another is thinking. Many people have doubts that this is really a 7) … (science) subject, and the professor’s work has only recently received 8) … (recognize). He believes that telepathy is a 9) … (nature) talent, but that some people are more 10) … (sense) than others. However, most people still believe that it involves some kind of 11) … (honesty) or trickery.


Money and shopping

Word formation: accept acceptance, accepting, (un)acceptable, (un)acceptably

assist assistance, assistant

economy economic, (un)economical(ly), economics, economist

expense (in)expensive(ly), expenses

poor poorly, poverty

pay paid, payment, payable

real unreal, really, realize, realization, reality, realistic(ally)

3.8 Заполните словами в правильной форме:


Shop till you Drop!

Retail therapy has become one of Britain’s most pleasurable leisure 1) (pursue)……….. But the percentage of the population suffering from the serious medical condition of shopping 2) (addict)……….. is reaching crisis point.

Experts believe 10 per cent of the population, and possibly 20 per cent of women, are manic, 3) (compel).............. shoppers. Most shopaholics are seriously in debt, and the condition has led to 4) (depress) ……….., family break-ups, and in some cases to 5) (home) ………. and even suicide.

More 6) (science)…………… known as omniomania, the condition has been recognized by 7) (psychiatry)…………. since the early 1900s but only now is it teaching epidemic proportions. A European Union report recently revealed that up to half of 14- to 18-year-old girls in Scotland, Italy and Spain could be classified as shopaholics, but the stigma of being a shopaholic may be masking an even higher number of 8) (suffer)………..

3.9 Заполните совами в правильной форме:

Customer Complaints

Complaining about shoddy goods, high prices and pork services can be a daunting prospect, especially if you have little 1) … (know) of the law. With standard consumer complaints, like being 2) … (charge) for goods, contact the customer services department of the organization, where may be a set complaints 3) … (proceed) in place. If you have a complaint linked to a local retailer and you think their products are 4) … (fault) or their selling methods dubious, contact your local trading standards office. Before phoning or writing, it is 5) …(advice) to get the facts totally clear in your own mind as to why you are 6) …(satisfaction) and what you want to happen to put matters right. Will you accept 7)… (replace) goods or do you only want as full cash 8) …(fund)? It’s often better to go for money first.




People and society

Word formation: able unable, (in)ability, disabled, disability

argue argument, argumentative

happy unhappy, (un)happiness, (un)happily

jealous jealousy, jealously

willing unwilling, (un)willingness, (un)mwillingly

polite impolite, (im)politely, (im)politenss

obey disobey, (dis)obedient(ly)(dis)obedience

3.10. Заполните пропуски словами в правильной форме:

We have to come to the 1)… (decide) that if this company is to become 3) … (effect), a 20% … (reduce) in spending costs must be made.

My sister is very clever and 4) … (persuade) young lady. I can’t believe she made me give her my most valuable 5) … (possess) – my watch!

Karen is a 6) … (create) girl who likes to keep herself busy and 7) … (act). Sometimes she is a little 8) … (talk) and doesn’t pay enough 9) … (attend) in class.

Tom’s parents think that Tom is a 10) … (sense) child who cries easily. I think he’s just an 11) … (act), and quite an 12) … (impress) one at that!



Hobbies, sport and games

Word formation: allow disallow, allowance, allowable

associate disassociate, (un)associate

compete compettion, competitor, competitive(ly)

equip equipment, equipped

enjoy enjoyment, enjoyable

know, knowledge, (un)knowledgeable

lose lost, loss

medal medalist, medallion

oppose opposition, opponent, opposite, opposing

train retrain, trainer

fortune misfortune, (un)fortunate(ly

3.11Заполните пропуски словами в правильной форме:

Learning to swim can be a 1) (frighten) experience, and the older you are, the more 2) (courage) you need to be. The first step is to actually get into the water without panicking, which many people have 3) (difficult) doing. Once you are in the water you should try to relax, which can be done with the help of your 4) (instruct), who will be 5) (know) about relaxation techniques. If you can overcome your anxiety and start to feel at home in the water, leaning to swim will come 6) (nature), and will 7) (doubt) be one of the most 8) (reward) experiences of your life.

3. 12. Заполните словами в правильной форме:

Learning to swim can be a 1) (frighten) experience, and the older you are, the more 2) (courage) you need to be. The first step is to actually get into the water without panicking, which many people have 3) (difficult) doing. Once you are in the water you should try to relax, which can be done with the help of your 4) (instruct), who will be 5) (know) about relaxation techniques. If you can overcome your anxiety and start to feel at home in the water, leaning to swim will come 6) (nature), and will 7) (doubt) be one of the most 8) (reward) experiences of your life.

3.13.Заполните пропуски словами в правильной форме:

The Benefits of Exercise

Working full-time can be a very 1) … (stress) experience for most people; long hours and the pressure to be 2) … (success) in a 3) … (compete) society both contribute to the build-up of anxiety. If you’re feeling 4) … (nerve), there’s no better way to relax than to exercise. However, many people return from work too 5) … (exhaust) to move. People are criticized for being lazy and 6) … (active), and for watching too much television which is not 7) … (benefit) to our health. Taking regular exercise can be both relaxing and 8) … (pleasure), and people who feel healthy often also feel more 9) … (confidence). You don’t need to be especially 10) … (energy) to take up a sport; simply choose one that is 11) … (suit) to your character.

The media

Wordformation: announce, announcement, (un)announced

belief disbelief, believe, (un)believable, (un)believably

communicate communication, (un)communicative, communicator

edit editor, editorial, edited

power powerful(ly), powerless(ly), empower

ridicule ridicous(ly), ridicousness

inform information, (un)informed, (un)informable

3.14. Заполните словами в правильной форме:

Friends Reunited” expands

Friends Reunited , the UK website that 1) (able) subscribes to locate their old school friends, is planning to expand. Extra sites will be launched in other courtiers, using the same 2) (line) as the UK site.

The site has been a(n) 3) (quality) success since it went live in the UK. Run by husband and wife Steve and Julie Pankhurst, it has more than 6.2 million registered 4) (use) . It received acres of press 5) (cover) as features 6) (edit) realized its 7) (potent) for generating human interest stories.

There have been several 8) (imitate) but none has met with the success of the original. Now, according to the Pankhursts, there is plenty of room for international 9) (grow).

The law and crime

Word formation: accuse, accused, accusation

addict addicted, addictive, addiction

convict convicted, conviction

crime criminal

forge forgery, forger

investigate

investigative, investigation, investigator

offence offensive, offend, offender

prison prisoner, imprisonment, imprisoned

prove proof, (un)proven, disprove

secure insecure, (in)security

3.15. Заполните словами в правильной форме:

Last year our house was broken into while we were 1) (happy) out shopping. It was a 2) (shock) experience), and afterwards there was a 3) (length) police 4) (investigate). First police officer came to take a statement, accompanied by a man who dusted the house for any traces for the burglar’s fingerprints. They wrote a report and started looking for a culprit. Two weeks later they found him and charged him with 5) (burgle). He was subsequently found 6) (guilt) in court0, as his fingerprints were 7) (prove0 enough that he had committed the crime.

Health and fitness

Wordformation: allergy allergic

aware unaware, awareness

benefit beneficial

emphasis emphasize, emphatic

fit unfit, fitness

injure injury, injuries

recover recovery

strong strength, strengthen, strongly

inject injection

operate operation, operator, cooperate, cooperation, (un)cooperative

3.16. Заполните словами в правильной форме:

The no-surgery-solutions

These days, it seems there’s an1).(operate) for everything. Whether you want something made smaller or you want to2)(emphasis) your best features, you can bet that plastic3) …(surgery) claim to have the solution. We at BodySculpt know, though, that you don’t want the 4) … (comfort) associated with surgery. But you can’t enjoy the 5) …(benefit) effects without going under knife, can you? Yes! No need for 6) …(surgery) procedures with a long 7) ….(recover) period. Our unique service consists of a series 8) … (inject) that will give you the results you’ve always wanted! Call now and speak to one of our 9) … (operate).

Food and drink

Wordformation: anxious, anxiously, anxiety

appreciate (un)appreciative(ly), appreciation

contain container, content(s)

create creative(ly), creation, creatively, creator

feed food

prepare preparation, preparatory, (un)prepared

sweet sweetly, sweetener, sweetness

mix mixed, mixture, mixer

grow growth, grown-up, growing, grown, home-grown, grower

origin (un)original(ly), originate, originator

3.17. Заполните словами в правильной форме:

Creating your own dishes

Good cooking is always a strange 1) … (mix) of science and art, and youcertainly have to be fairly 2) … (create) if you want to come up with your own recipes. All cooking also demands a fair amount of 3) … (prepare) , and this is doubly true when you’re producing 4) … (origin) dishes. You also have to be thick-skinned. You’ll be 5) … (surprise) by how honest people can be when it comes to food. I’ve had people tell me my latest dish is 6) ….(disgust) and 7) … (thorough) inedible! Sometimes, they were right. But don’t get upset. Just smile 8) … (sweet) and thank them for their valuable opinion. And never forget that when you’re waiting 9) … (anxious) to hear whether or not your ‘masterpiece’ is a success and they suddenly show their 10) … (appreciate) you’ll relies it was all it worth it. My tips: home- 11) … (grow) vegetables are always the tastiest. Every good cook needs a top-quality 12) … (mix). It’s an essential piece of kitchen equipment, not a luxury. Make sure you’ve got lots of good-quality food storage 13) … (contain). And, finally, remember that designing a new dish is not about 14) … (safe). It’s about taking risks, and learning from your mistakes. have fun in the kitchen!

Education and learning

Word formation: academy academic, academically

attend attention, (in)attentive(ly), attendance, attendant

behave behavior

certify certificate, certified

educate education, educator, educational(ly)

fail failure, failing

improve improvement, improved

literate illiterate, (il)literacy, literature

revise revision, revised

scholar scholarship, scholarly, scholastic

solve solution, (un)solvable

study student, studies, studious

think thought, (un)thinkable, thoughtful, thoughtless

understand (mis)understanding, (mis)understood, understandable, understandably

3.18. Заполните пропуски словами в правильной форме:

Being unable to read

It seems 1) … (think) today not to provide children with a decent 2) … (educate).There is such n emphasis on 3) … (academy) achievement these days that it’s easy to forget what a problem 4) … (literate) used to be. Being unable to read can be 5) … (intense) embarrassing and can make someone feel like a complete 6) … (fail). Someone who can’t read is often 7) … (understand) afraid of certain situations. The problem can seem 8) … (solve). However, given the right teacher, a lot of hard work and a 9) … (reason) amount of time, anyone can learn. Being able to read can lead to an 10)… (Improve) quality of life.


Weather and the environment

Word formation: accurate accurately, inaccurately, (in) accuracy

danger dangerous(ly), endanger, endangered

environment environmental(ly), environmentalist

harm harmful(ly), harmless (ly) (un)harmed

nature (un)natural(ly)

pollute (un)polluted, pollution, pollutant

reside residential, resident, residence

low lower, lowness

globe global(ly)

3.19. Заполните словами в правильной форме:

The forecast said there was a high 1(likely) of rain this weekend. WE all know that using cars causes 2) … (pollute), but we still do it. Forecasting the weather 3) … (accurate) takes a great deal of training. Litter is often a problem in 4) … (resident) area. According to 5) … (environment), we could be facing a crisis within fifty years. It was a wonderfully 6) … (sun) day, so we decided to go to the beach. The giant panda is 7) … (danger) because its habitat is being destroyed. We didn’t enjoy our walk because it was absolutely 8) … (freeze).

Entertainment

Word formation: act,(in) active(ly),actor, actress, action, (in)activity

amuse (un)amusing(ly), amusement

bore boring(ly), bored, boredom

converse conversation

current currently

entertain entertaining, entertainment, entertainer

excite (un)exciting, excited(ly), excitement

perform performing, performance, performer

vary (in)variable, (in)variably, varying, varied, various(ly), variation, variety


3.20. Заполните пропуски словами в правильной форме:

Reality show

Despite the 1) … (suggest) by many critics that reality TV would be a very short-lived phenomenon, it still increasing in 2) … (popular). Several reality shows are 3) … (current) watched by millions of viewers each night, and it’s clearly a form of 4) … (entertain) that’s here to stay. Indeed, a number of people have become 5) … (fame) because of their 6) … (involve) in reality TV shows, and have gone on to have successful careers as singers, 7) … (act) or TV presenters. We can watch with 8) … (excite) each night the ‘going-on’ in the house (or jungle, or bar, or school of arts). The 9) … (converse) between the contestants are interesting; so we don’t get 10) … (bore), and there are frequently 11) … (vary) conflicts, which provide further 12) … (amuse). If the contestants have to give some kind of 13) … (perform) at the end of the week, that’s even more appealing. But there’s a 14) … (say) in the TV industry: ‘it’s all in the editing’ and this is especially true of reality shows.


Fashion and design

Word formation: advertise, advertisement, advert, advertising, advertiser

attract (un)attractive(ly), attraction

decide decision, (in)decisive(ly), undecided

desire (un)desirable

enthuse (un)enthusiastic(ally), enthusiasm, enthusiast

expect (un)expected(ly), expectation, expectancy

fashion (un)fashionable, (un) fashionably

produce product, producer, production, (un)productive(ly)

style (un)stylish(ly), stylist, stylishness

succeed success, (un)successful(ly)

use usage, useful(ly), useless(ly), user, (un)usable

3.21 Заполните пропуски словами в правильной форме:

Visit to a fashion show

I was really 1) … (enthuse) about my first visit to a fashion show. I had always loved fashion but had only models in 2) … (advertise) on TV. Finally, I was going to see a real show! I got out my most 3) … (fashion) clothes. I wanted to look as 4) … (style) as the models. I don’t know if I was completely 5) … (success), but I never had much money to spend on clothes and I felt 6) … (attract), which is the main thing. When we got there, it was fantastic! There were so many 7) … (beauty) women! The show started and imagines my surprise when, completely 8) … (expect), the first model was wearing clothes just like I was! Everyone saw the 9) … (similar) and a couple of people asked me who my 10) … (style) was! Amazing!






















Ключи

3.1: 1. tiring; 2. tireless; 3. leadership; 4. leading; 5. excellent; 6. excellence; 7. competition; 8.competitive/competitors; 9. contractors; 10. contractual)

3.2: 1.suddenly, 2.consequently; 3.variuos; 4.dusty; 5.unforgetful; 6.numerous; 7.fascinating; 8.exploration)

3.4: 1. inventor; 2. famous; 3.government; 4. calculator; 5. unfortunately; 6. luckily; 7. finally)

3.5: 1. successful; 2. musical; 3. performances; 4. achievements; 5. determination; 6. ability; 7; helpful; 8. compassionate; 9. famous; 10. powerful; 11. commitment; 12. dedication

3.6: 1.evolution; 2. selection; 3. hospitable; 4. exceedingly; 5. exploration. 6. puzzling.; 7.manned; 8. behaviour)

3.7: 1. psychological; 2. investigation; 3. mysterious; 4. abilities; 5. surprising; 6. communication; 7. scientific; 8. recognition; 9.unnatural; 10. sensitive; 11. dishonesty)

3.9: 1.knowledge; 2. overcharged; 3. procedure; 4. faulty; 5. advisable; 6. dissatisfied; 7. replacement; 8. refund)

3.10: 1. decision; 2. effective; 3. reduction; 4. persuasive; 5. possession; 6. creative; 7. active; 8. talkative; 9. attention; 10. sensitive; 11. active; 12. impressive)

3.11: 1. frightening; 2. courageous; 3.difficulty; 4. instructor; 5. knowledgeable; 6. naturally; 7.undoubtedly; 8. rewarding

3.12: 1. frightening; 2. courageous; 3.difficulty; 4. instructor; 5. knowledgeable; 6. naturally; 7.undoubtedly; 8. rewarding

3.13: 1. stressful; 2. successful; 3. competitive; 4. nervous; 5. exhausted; 6. inactive; 7. beneficial; 8. pleasant; 9.confident; 10. energetic; 11. suitable)

3.14: 1. enables; 2.outline; 3. unqualified; 4. users; 5.coverage; 6. editors; 7. potential; 8. imitators; 9. growth)

3.15: 1.happily; 2. shocking; 3. lengthy; 4.investigation; 5. burglary; 6. guilty; 7. proof

3.16: 1.operation; 2. emphasis; 3. surgeons; 4. discomfort; 5. beneficial; 6. surgical; 7.recovery; 8. injections; 9. operators

3.17: 1. mixture; 2. creative; 3. preparation; 4. original; 5. surprised; 6. disgusting; 7. thoroughly; 8. sweetly; 9. anxiously; 10. appreciation; 11. grown; 12. mixer; 13. containers; 14. safety

3.18: 1. unthinkable: 2. education; 3. academic; 4. illiteracy; 5. intensely; 6. failure; 7. understandably; 8. unsolvable; 9. reasonable; 10. improved

3.19: 1.likelihood; 2. pollution; 3. accurately; 4. residential; 5. environmentalists; 6. sunny; 7. endangered; 8. freezing

3.20: 1. suggestion(s); 2. popularity; 3. currently; 4. entertainment; 5. famous; 6. involvement; 7. actors; 8. excitement; 9. conversations; 10. bored; 11. various; 12. amusement; 13. performance; 14. saying

3.21:1. enthusiastic; 2. dvertisments/ads/adverts; 3. fashionable; 4. stylish; 5. successful; 6. attractive; 7. beautiful; 8. unexpectedly; 9.similarity; 10. stylist

Список использованной литературы:

1) V.Evans, J.Dooley, Upstream/Pre-Intermediate, 2004

2) B.Obee,V.Evans,Upstream/Upper Intermediate, 2007

3) V.Evans,J.Dooley, Enterprise/Intermediate,2007

4) V.Evans, J.Dooley,Mission 1, 2000

5) M.Harris, D.Mover,A. Sikorzynska, Opportunities/Upper Intermediate, 2002

6) Практическая грамматика английского языка,К.Н.Качалова. Е.Е.Израилевич.-М.:Юнвес, 2002




Полный текст материала Учебно-методическая разработка "Суффиксы и приставки в английском языке" смотрите в скачиваемом файле.
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Автор: Апаласова Надежда Михайловна  apalas
04.04.2012 3 4251 1024

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