Статья "Изучение фразеологических единиц и устойчивых выражений в английском и русском языках"
«CONTRASTIVE STUDY OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS AND SUSTAINABLE EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN LANGUAGES»
ALBYCHEVA KRISTINA YURYEVNA
KGKP "East Kazakhstan Humanitarian College"
English has a long and great history. During that time, a large number of expressions is accumulated and become of commonly usage. So, a special layer of the language called phraseology has arisen. A set of stable expressions has independent significance. Learning English is widespread throughout the world. The knowledge of phraseology is extremely facilitated by reading both journalistic and fiction. The right usage of phraseological units makes speech more expressive.
Due to the phraseological expressions, which are not literally translated, the aesthetic aspect of the language is enhanced. As Anichkov I.E. said: “With the help of idioms, as well as various shades of colors, the informational aspect of the language is complemented by a sensually-intuitive description of our world and our life”. Getting acquainted with a foreign language, a person simultaneously penetrates into a new national culture. A good knowledge of the language is an impossible without knowledge of its phraseological units. The world of Russian and English phraseology is very diverse.
Key words: phraseological units, Russian and English phraseology, contrastive study, sustainable expressions.
Nowadays it is impossible to imagine modern linguistics without comparing of studied objects. Correlation, comparison and opposition of units, forms, categories, categories and other linguistic phenomena is a required condition for the characteristics of each of them. Furthermore, the establishment of significant semantic relationships between them plays the key role in linguistics.
Phraseology is one of the most interesting and at the same time the least studied areas of linguistics. It helps to better understand the culture and history of the country through the prism of the national language. In this regard, the study of phraseological units of the language is of particular interest.
The intensive development of phraseology in recent years also corresponds to the general tendency of the development of linguistic theory from simple to complex levels, methods and directions of language learning. So, the methods include a comparative analysis of the phraseology of languages of different groups and systems.
Phraseology or phraseological unit is a stable in composition and structure, lexically indivisible and integral in meaning phrase that performs the function of a separate lexeme (dictionary unit). The main purpose of phraseological units of the Russian and English languages is to give speech expressiveness, artistic originality, accuracy and imagery. The first thing that needs to be said is that phraseology and phraseological units are common to all languages of the world. It is a rich layer of both Russian and English languages. In fact, Russian and English come from a group of Indo-European languages. Therefore, there are many similarities between them in the construction and meaning of phraseological foundations.
During the entire period of its existence, Russian and English languages have a continuous effect on each other. In fact, language plays an active role, reproducing the logical mental picture of the world, introducing peculiar corrections into it, laying its mark on understanding. Doubtless, along with a certain system of thoughts that reflects the picture of the world, a linguistic picture of the world appears in consciousness. [1,2] It varies from language to language. Therefore, the mechanism of linguistic expression in reality cannot be uniform for all languages.
One should note here that the difference in the linguistic picture of the world is the absence of the names of certain objects and phenomena, existing in one culture and has no analogues in another one. It leads to a difference in linguistic understanding. In modern linguistics, the interconnection of language and culture is not in doubt. Each language is an inseparable from the culture that composes its substantive aspect.  It is often said that language reflects modern culture not only momentarily, but also captures its previous states and transfers its values from generation to generation.
What is more, phraseological units have been and remain in the language throughout its history. The phraseology captures the rich historical experience of people. Moreover, it reflects the ideas associated with the work, life and culture of people. One should, however, not forget that changing over the time, the national language as a socio-historical category never loses its concrete essence, which allows preserving the important property of transmission of cultural-historical traditions from generation to generation. The national character is manifested in the reflection of the characteristics of nature, life, customs, history and culture, mainly in the drill units of the language, including phraseological units. In the course of studying we have found out that there are phraseological units having one meaning and literally translated from Russian into English: there is no smoke without fire (нет дыма без огня), to burn bridges (сжигать мосты), don't look a gift horse in the mouth (дареному коню в зубы не смотрят), to play with fire (играть с огнем), the cream of society (сливки общества). 
However, there are also phraseological units that are not literally translated from English into Russian, but it is not difficult to draw a parallel and find the corresponding analogue in Russian. Russian equivalents often do not fully coincide with their English “brothers”. A change of imagery often occurs, an imprint of a certain culture and mentality translating from one language to another: that’s the heart of the matter - вот сердце вопроса вот где собака зарыта; he won’t set the Thames on fire - он не подожжет Темзу; to kill two birds with one stone - убить двух птиц одним камнем, убить двух зайцев; to fight with fire – c огнем бороться; to promise the moon - обещать Луну, обещать золотые горы; to make a mountain out of molehill - делать из мухи слона.
Nevertheless, one should accept that there are idioms that you just need to remember: it rains cats and dogs (букв.: «дождь льёт кошками и собаками») означает «лить как из ведра»; couch potato — бездельник; а piece of cake (дословно: «кусок торта») — «пару пустяков». 
Perhaps we should also point out the fact that comparing other phraseological units in English and Russian, we have found out its’ similarity in structure. This similarity was connected with the structure, imagery and stylistic coloring: играть с огнем – to play with fire; сжигать мосты – to burn bridges; нет дыма без огня – there is no smoke without fire; трудолюбивый, как пчела – busy as a bee; жить как кошка с собакой – a cat and dog life; дела сердечные – affair of the heart; дело чести – affair of honor; рыцарь без страха и упрека – knight without fear and without reproach. 
We cannot ignore the fact that some of these idioms are already international, and different languages claim their originality. Each language has its own phraseological units. The following expressions are very similar in Russian and English languages: труден только первый шаг – it is the first step that costs; искать иголку в стоге сена – look for a needle in a bottom of hay; аппетит приходит во время еды – appetite comes with eating; браки совершаются на небесах – marriages are made in heaven; глаза – зеркало души – the eyes are the mirror of the soul; если бы молодость знала, а старость могла – if youth but knew, if age but could.
One must admit that many Russian and English expressions are taken from the Bible. The Bible is the richest source of phraseological units. This greatest work enriched both Russian and English with similar units.  Here are some of them: the beam in one’s eye – бревно в собственном глазу; daily bread – хлеб насущный; poverty is no sin – бедность не порок; to throw nature out of the door, it will come back again – Гони природу в дверь, она войдет в окно.
We can clearly imagine how diverse and expressive the phraseological units of modern English and Russian languages are. What is more, we can observe its’ similarities and differences from each other. Unlike those phraseological units that have acquired interlanguage equivalence due to borrowings, the similarity of phraseological units in figurative and stylistic coloring is due to a simple coincidence. The general and distinctive properties of the imaginative means of the native and English languages helped us to see the unity and originality of linguistic units, because the ratio of these images is a very unique phenomenon in linguistics. We must pay attention to the similar nature of their usage in carrying out the frequency analysis of the animalistic component in Russian and English phraseological units. The names of the pets are coincided: a dog (A dog in the manger. - Собака на сене. Barking dogs seldom bite. Лающая собака редко кусает.); a cat (A cat has nine lives. - У кошки девять жизней. To live cat - and- dog life. Жить как кошка с собакой. All cats are grey in the dark. Ночью все кошки серы.); horses (Don't swap horses when crossing a stream. Коней на переправе не меняют. It is a good horse that never stumbles. Хороша та лошадь, которая не спотыкается.); a cow\a bull (The bull must be taken by the horns. Бери быка за рога.A curst cow has short horns. Проклятой корове бог и рога короткие.). The names of wild animals are also repeated: заяц (If you run after two hares, you will catch none. За двумя зайцами погонишься, ни одного не поймаешь.); лиса (The fox is not taken twice in the same snare. Лису дважды в одну и ту же ловушку не поймаешь.); волк (The wolf may change his coat but not his disposition. Сколько волка не корми, он все в лес смотрит). 
So, like most structural units of a language, phraseological units perform a cumulative function. Basically, it comes down to the selection, accumulation and preservation of a wide variety of information: fauna and flora, geographical location, historical events and faces, mythological characters, images of folklore and fiction, art and science. All these are reflected both in Russian and English phraseologies.
The national identity of the language receives the most vivid and direct manifestation in phraseology, since it is correlated directly with extra linguistic reality.
Each language has its own way of perceiving and reflecting the world and in its own way creates its linguistic picture. Awareness of this identity becomes more distinct in the process of comparison with another system of perception. The identification of national and cultural features of phraseological units of various countries and peoples allow us not only to increase our vocabulary and thus, enrich our speech, but also to extent the culture of these countries.
Thus, the study of phraseology helps better understand the history of the people, their attitude to human merits and demerits, the specifics of their worldview. Phraseological units are the soul of every culture; they are passed from mouth to mouth, from generation to generation. In the lexical composition of the language, phraseological units occupy a significant place, reflecting various aspects of reality. Phraseological units denote a certain phenomenon of reality, characterize it and give a certain assessment. In terms of meaning, they correspond to common concepts, expressing the importance of objectivity, process, quality and property or method. 
Phraseology is an important means of verbal influence on a person, gives the language special expressiveness, imagery, and helps to understand its deeply human ideas. The usage of phraseological units depends on an ideological thematic focus of speech. They are diverse in semantics, stylistic and historical-genetic characteristics. Some phraseological units are used often, but they sound differently in various contexts, expressing subtle nuances of meaning and feelings Phraseological units characterize deeply peculiar and national character of the phraseological system of the language. The history gives writers a plot, mythology provides a philosophical and worldview basis, and national phraseology gives an opportunity to present a plot so that it does not produce a documentary report. Moreover, this report is a work of art that can have a profound moral impact.
Amosova N.N. "Fundamentals of English phraseology" - M .: Book house "Librocom", 2010-216 p.
Zhukov V.P., Zhukov A.V. Russian phraseology: textbook. allowance. - M .: Higher school, 2017 .-- 310 p.
Kunin A. F. "Phraseology of the modern English language." International Relations Publishing House, Moscow, I-90.
Kunin A. V. Large English-Russian phraseological dictionary. 4th ed., Rev. and add. - M .: Russian language, 2016.
Mankovskaya Z.N. “Idioms and Phrasal Verbs in Business Communication” (English) - M .: INFA-M, 2017-184 p.
Melerovich A. M., V. M. Mokienko. Phraseologisms in Russian speech: a dictionary. - M .: Astrel, AST, 2015 .-- 856 s.
Fedorov A. I. Phraseological dictionary of the Russian literary language. - M .: Astrel, AST, 2008 .-- 828 p.
Shibzukhov T. A., Kudaeva F. M., Ozenzhokova F. Kh. Comparative analysis of Russian and English phraseological units // Young scientist. - 2019. - No. 2. - S. 15-18. - URL https://moluch.ru/young/archive/22/1366/ (accessed: 08/10/2019).
На странице приведен фрагмент.
Автор: Албычева Кристина Юрьевна
09.02.2020 0 38 6
Образные приёмы рефлексии в конце урока отлично подходят для учеников начальной школы, они просты и понятны для детей. Также их можно использовать и в работе с более взрослыми ребятами.