Статья "Актуальные проблемы современной логопедии"
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF MODERN SPEECH THERAPY
Lapenko Irina Vyacheslavovna
Student of faculty of preschool, primary and special education,
Belgorod State National Research University, Belgorod, Russia,
Markov Alexander Vladimirovich
Senior lecturer of faculty of foreign languages
Belgorod State National Research University, Belgorod, Russia,
The article reflects the formation of speech therapy science. Its current problems, the main goals of teaching children, the organization of the speech therapy process. The methodological foundations of speech therapy are revealed. The importance of logopedia for the development of personality of children with speech disorders. The influence of speech pathology on the entire mental development of the child, his activity and behavior.
Key words: speech therapy, speech, speech communication, motive, defectology, mental development, speech disorders, corrective training.
Communication of people is carried out mainly with the help of speech, which is inextricably linked with the development of abstract thinking. A person perceives objects and phenomena in two ways - directly, through the senses, and through words. Thanks to speech, we can accept reality abstractly, mentally. Almost all personal qualities: tastes, habits, character, temperament - are laid down in a person in childhood. And a considerable role in the formation of personality is played by speech.
Speech is a complex function, and its development depends on many points. The child learns to speak by the example of the speech of parents, teachers, friends. People should help the child to form correct, clear speech. It is very important that a child from an early age hears a correct, distinctly sound speech, on the example of which his own speech is formed.
Mastering a child’s speech helps to understand, plan, and regulate his behavior. Verbal communication creates the necessary conditions for various forms of activity and participation in collective work.
Speech disorders to one degree or another (depending on the nature of speech disorders) adversely affect the entire mental development of the child, affect his activity and behavior. Severe speech impairment can affect mental development, especially the formation of higher levels of cognitive activity, which is due to the close relationship of speech and thinking and the limited social contacts during which the child learns about the surrounding reality.
Children entering first grade have a limited vocabulary, underdeveloped hand motility, inadequate emotions, orthoepic defects. The readiness of children to study at school presents a dramatic picture.
Statistics of speech disorders invariably captures the growth of speech pathologies. Speech disorders not only manifest themselves in the shortcomings of sound pronunciation, but also affect other components of speech, such as the phonetic, lexical and grammatical aspects of speech. Defects are systemic in nature. Children with speech impairment, of course, need qualified help from a specialist. Many parents are unaware of the seriousness of the problem, believing that their child is all right. Parents cannot independently determine the content of work on the development of the child’s speech and the correction of its shortcomings in the context of family education. But a speech therapist does not only “puts sounds”; the work of a speech therapist begins with the development in children of all mental processes (visual and auditory perception, attention, memory, thinking), which will certainly contribute to the development of the child and his cognitive activity.
Deviations in speech development are of a different nature and affect the overall development of the child and his cognitive activities in different ways, but lagging behind in school is inevitable if the child does not receive speech therapy help in a timely manner. But pre-school education is the first step in continuing education.
Hence, a complete revision of the traditional forms and methods of organizing the educational process is needed. At the same time, teachers of even the highest class will not be able to do without the help of a specialist either in preschool education or in the first stage of training.
Speech therapist not only opens up unlimited opportunities for the child to communicate, he is a kind of guide for a small person in a diverse world of human relations. Overcoming speech disorders provides confidence in the child’s own abilities.
The main goal of speech therapy is the development of a scientifically based system of training, education and re-education of people with speech disorders, as well as the prevention of speech disorders.
It is well known that at the origins of speech therapy, the study of speech disorders was not associated with the development of pedagogical aspects. Speech was presented primarily as a set of systematic muscle movements, and the content of speech therapy was limited to the development of various methods of correction of oral speech, mainly pronunciation and speech breathing. Another direction has acquired the development of speech therapy as a pedagogical science. The subject of the study was a wide variety of manifestations of speech development disorders, which required the study of mental processes involved in the formation of speech activity. The gap between the consideration of speech processes as a complex unity, the components of which depend on each other and condition each other (R. E. Levina), and the traditional symptomatic approach to eliminating their deviations, was bridged.
Internal speech therapy creates the most favorable conditions for the development of the personality of children with speech disorders. The successes of domestic speech therapy are based on numerous modern studies by domestic and foreign authors, testifying to the great compensatory capabilities of the developing children's brain and improving methods and methods of the corrective effect of speech therapy, I.P. Pavlov, emphasizing the extreme plasticity of the central nervous system and its unlimited compensatory possibilities, wrote: “Nothing remains motionless, unshakable, but it can always be achieved, changed for the better, if only the relevant conditions are met. "
The organization of the speech therapy process allows you to eliminate or mitigate both speech and psychophysical disorders, contributing to the achievement of the main goal of the pedagogical impact - the education of a person.
Speech therapy should be aimed at both external and internal factors causing speech impairment. It is a complex pedagogical process, aimed primarily at correcting and compensating for speech disorders.
In the study and elimination of systemic speech disorders in modern speech therapy, psycholinguistics data based on the teachings of L.S. Vygotsky, A.R. Luria A.A. Leont'ev on the complex structure of speech activity, on the operations of perception and generation of speech utterances.
The perception and generation of speech utterances are multilevel processes having a complex hierarchically organized structure, including various operations. Each level, each operation of the process of generating a speech utterance has its own dictionary, its own syntax for combining units.
When studying speech disorders, it is important to determine which of the operations generating the speech utterance is violated. Russian speech therapy uses speech generation models developed by L. S. Vygotsky, A. A. Leontyev, and T. V. Ryabova.
L. S. Vygotsky considered the connection between thought and word as a process of movement from thought to word and vice versa, identified the following plans of movement: motive - thought - internal speech - external speech; There are external (physical) and semantic (psychological) plan of speech.
In external speech, the interaction of grammatical and semantic (psychological) structures is manifested. The transitional structure from the semantic plane to external speech is internal speech. L. S. Vygotsky gave a deep analysis of internal speech, revealed its characteristic features. Based on the structure of the speech process described by L. S. Vygotsky, A. A. Leontyev identifies the following operations for generating a speech utterance: motive - thinking (speech intention) - internal programming - lexical deployment and grammatical construction - motor implementation - external speech.
Each speech utterance is generated by a certain motive, which determines the occurrence of speech intention (thinking).
At the stage of internal programming, corresponding to L.S. For Vygotsky, “mediation of thought in the inner word,” the speech sense is mediated by a code of personal meanings, enshrined in certain subjective units of the code (“code of images and diagrams,” Zhinkin). The program is created from the entire coherent speech utterance, as well as individual utterances, as a result of which a system of predicative utterances in the internal speech code is organized. The program of a separate utterance includes such components as a subject, an object, a predicate, and others that are connected by a meaningful semantic connection (“psychological syntax”). In the process of perception at this stage, an operation is performed to add up a system of objective language meanings into an internal chain.
The stage of lexical and grammatical deployment includes two operations that are fundamentally different in their mechanisms: the operation of generating a syntactic structure and its lexical filling, which are performed in codes of a particular language, that is, at the language level. Then follows the stage of implementation of the engine.
For example, the psycholinguistic approach in the study allows you to more deeply reveal the mechanism of speech impairment, identify a defect in the defect and identify this violation as a language disorder.
Studying the state of various operations of perception and generation of verbal expressions during aphasia allows us to determine the specifics of their disorders in its various forms.
The psycholinguistic approach helps to increase the effectiveness of speech therapy work for the correction of speech disorders, as well as understanding the interaction of language and speech structures within a single system. In recent years, this problem has been productively developed based on the systematic approach of Professor V.I. Beltyukova
Based on the analysis of numerous literature data, the author convincingly showed the opposite in the nature of the construction of the linguistic and speech structures, which consists in the discreteness of the first and the continuity of the second. Despite the fact that speech and language are formed on the basis of the same elements, the nature of their relations in educated structures varies significantly.
The principles of the interaction of linguistic and speech structures, according to V. I. Beltyukov, reflect the general mechanism of self-organization and self-regulation in animate and inanimate nature, namely not only the principle of interiorization, but also the principle of exteriorization in their dialectical unity.
Speech therapy is closely related to general and special psychology, psychodiagnostics. It is important for a speech therapist to know the laws of the child’s mental development, to master the methods of psychological and pedagogical examination of children of different ages. Using these methods, a speech therapist can differentiate various forms of speech disorders and distinguish them from speech disorders associated with intellectual disability, emotional and behavioral disorders.
Knowledge of psychology helps the speech therapist to see not only the speech disorder itself, but first of all the child, to correctly understand the relationship of his speech disorders with the characteristics of mental development in general. This knowledge will help him make contact with children of different ages, choose adequate methods for examining their speech, perception, memory, attention, intelligence, emotional and volitional sphere, as well as conduct more effective speech therapy work.
Currently, marked progress in the development of speech therapy. Based on the psycholinguistic analysis, important data were obtained on the mechanisms of the most complex forms of speech pathology (aphasia, alalia and general speech underdevelopment, dysarthria). We study speech disorders in complicated defects: in case of oligophrenia, in children with visual impairment, hearing, musculoskeletal system. Modern neurophysiological and neuropsychological research methods are being introduced into linguistic practice. The relationship of speech therapy with clinical medicine, pediatric neuropathology and psychiatry is expanding.
Speech therapy is developed at an early age: features are studied before the development of children with organic lesions of the central nervous system, taking into account the requirements of early diagnosis and predictions of speech disorders, prevention methods and methods (prevention of the development of a defect) speech therapy. The effectiveness of speech therapy work.
The fact is that correct speech should be conducted earlier. The effectiveness of eliminating speech disorders is determined by the level of development of speech therapy science as a system.
Timely detection of speech disorders contributes to their faster elimination, prevents the negative impact of speech disorders on personality formation and on the entire mental development of the child.
It is necessary to have a good understanding of the causes, mechanisms and symptoms of speech pathology, to be able to differentiate primary speech underdevelopment with similar conditions with mental retardation, hearing loss, mental disorders, etc.
Knowledge of speech therapy is important for all defectologists, since speech disorders are much more common in abnormal children than in normally developing children.
The most relevant problems of modern speech therapy are the following:
1. Unification of the categorical apparatus.
2. In-depth study of (including psycholinguistic) mechanisms and methods
Methods of correction of speech activity disorders.
3. The scientifically substantiated ratio of nosological (clinical and pedagogical
sky) and symptomatic (psychological and pedagogical) approaches in logopedic theory and practice and in the development of nomenclature documents.
4. The study of speech ontogenesis in various forms of speech disorders.
5. The study of the features of speech disorders and their elimination in complicated developmental defects.
6. Early prevention, detection and elimination of speech disorders.
7. Creative and scientifically sound development of content, teaching methods and
raising children with severe speech impairment in special kindergartens and schools.
8. Consistent implementation of an integrated approach in identifying and corre-
reaction of speech disorders.
9. Ensuring continuity in the speech therapy work of preschool,
school and medical facilities.
10. Improving the theory and practice of differential diagnosis
personal forms of speech disorders.
11. Development , laboratory and experimental equipment, implementation of
vye in the educational process of computer technology.
12. Analysis of the achievements in the field of speech therapy, available in domestic and practice.
Speech disturbances, limited speech communication can adversely affect
at the level of a person’s personality, causing psychological manifestations, specific features of the emotional-volitional sphere that contribute to the development of a negative qualitative nature.
All this negatively affects the mastery of literacy, overall performance, the choice of professions. The value of speech therapy is to help the child overcome river disturbances, thereby ensuring his full, comprehensive development.
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6. Kovrigina, L. V. (2002). Logopedicheskaja rabota po formirovaniju predlozhno-padezhnyh form sushhestvitel'nyh u doshkol'nikov s obshhim nedorazvitiem rechi: diss. kand.ped. nauk, St. Petersburg, 220 p. (in Russian).
7. Chistobaeva, A. Ju. (2013). “Psihologo-pedagogicheskie aspekty sootnoshenija ponjatij ‘kommu- nikativno-rechevaja kul'tura’ i ‘kommunikativno-rechevaja kompetentnost'”, Cibirskij pedagogicheskij zhurnal, No 5, pp. 219–222 (in Russian).
8. Konovalenko, V. V. & Konovalenko, S. V. (2010). Formirovanie svjaznoj rechi i razvitie logicheskogo myshlenija u detej starshego doshkol'nogo vozrasta s ONR. Nekotorye metody i priemy: metod. posobie, Izdatel'stvo GNOM i D, Moscow, 48 p. (in Russian).
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Автор: Лапенко Ирина Вячеславовна
28.04.2020 0 98 10
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