Статья "Игровые технологии в работе логопеда"
GAME TECHNOLOGIES IN THE WORK OF A SPEECH THERAPIST
Yurchenko Alina Yuryevna
Student of faculty of preschool, primary and special education,
Belgorod State National Research University, Belgorod, Russia,
Markov Alexander Vladimirovich
Senior lecturer of faculty of foreign languages
Belgorod State National Research University, Belgorod, Russia,
The article presents options for gaming technology. These technologies are used when working with children with speech impairments. The article describes the importance of an adult in creating gaming situations. The purposeful organization of children's communication is necessary for the emergence of empathy, mutual assistance, and independent organization of meaningful communication.
Key words: child development, speech impairment, preschool age, speech, speech therapy, communicative development, general speech underdevelopment, logopedia, educational program, the game.
Preschool age is the most important period in the formation of the younger generation. It is at this time that the foundations of character are laid, talents are revealed, the formation of a full-fledged personality begins.
Today there is an active formation of a new system of preschool education in society. New strategic guidelines are defined in the development of the preschool education system. i
The educational standard defines the content of the program of the preschool institution. The content of the program should ensure the development of personality, motivation and ability of children in various activities. The program covers the following educational areas: social and communicative development, cognitive development, speech development, artistic and aesthetic development, physical development.
The teacher must have formed the core competencies to create a social situation for the development of children, which corresponds to the specifics of preschool age.
These competencies include ensuring emotional well-being through communication with each child, respectful attitude to each child, his feelings and needs. Supporting the individuality and initiative of children creates the conditions for children to freely choose their activities, children's initiative and independence in various types of activities (games, research, design, cognitive, etc.).
Rules of behavior and interaction create the conditions for positive, friendly relations between children in various situations. They may belong to different national-cultural, religious communities and social strata. And they can also have various health options. It is impossible to ignore the development of children's communicative abilities that allow them to resolve conflict situations with peers, the development of children's ability to work in a group of peers, solving problems in joint activities.
Competence involves the construction of a developmental education focused on the zone of proximal development of each pupil, which is carried out through:
1) creation of conditions for mastering the cultural means of activity;
2) the organization of activities that contribute to the development of thinking, imagination and children's creativity;
3) support for the spontaneous play of children, its enrichment, provision of playing time and space;
4) an assessment of the individual development of children in the course of observation, which is aimed at determining by the teacher the effectiveness of educational activities.
For successful development of the program, the interaction of a speech therapist with parents on the education of the child plays an important role. Involvement of parents in the educational process through the creation of educational projects together with the family on the basis of identifying needs and supporting educational initiatives of the family.
The task of a speech therapist is to learn how to build your work taking into account the above requirements.
For full communication of children, the formation of humane relations between them, the mere presence of playmates and an abundance of toys is not enough. The purposeful organization of children's communication is necessary for the emergence of empathy, mutual assistance, independent organization of meaningful communication.
The main task of an adult is to organize the success of the interaction of children, i.e. their joint subject activity and form a subjective interaction.
The transition from subjective to communicative interaction proper becomes possible to a decisive extent precisely thanks to the adult. One of the effective forms of subjective interaction of children in a preschool is joint games in which children act simultaneously and equally.
In the works of domestic and foreign scientists L.S.Vygotsky, K. Kofka, M. Montessori, J. Piaget, A.P. Usova, D.B Elkonin noted that the game aimed at the comprehensive development of the child is one of the main aspects of preschool education.
Of particular importance is the game in the correctional and pedagogical process of education and training of preschool children with speech impairments. The game is used along with substantive activity as the basis for the formation of the correct speech of children and for their full development. Preschoolers display their ideas and knowledge about the world in the game.
A didactic game is one of the forms of the educational impact of an adult on a child that has two goals: one of them is educational, which is pursued by an adult, and the other is a game, for which the child acts. It is important that these two goals complement each other and ensure the assimilation of program material. It is necessary to strive to ensure that the child can achieve the game goal only by assimilating program material.
A didactic game is a learning tool, so it can be used in the assimilation of any program material and conducted in the classroom (individual and group) by both a speech therapist and a group educator.
In the course of a didactic game, conditions are created in which each child gets the opportunity to act independently in a certain situation or with certain objects. He gains his own effective and sensual experience. This is especially important for children with speech impairments, whose experience with objects is significantly impoverished, not fixed and not generalized.
The special role of the didactic game is determined in the learning process by the fact that the game should make the learning process emotional, effective, and allow the child to get his own experience.
The special role of the didactic game is determined in the learning process by the fact that the game should make the learning process emotional, effective, and allow the child to get his own experience. Correctional goals are used primarily in the selection of didactic games and the features of the speech development of preschoolers are taken into account.
Early and preschool age is called the age of sensory knowledge of the world. During this period, the formation of all types of perception occurs in children: visual, tactile, motor, auditory. And also an idea is formed about the objects and phenomena of the world. Children gain sensory experience in the process of extensive research. A preschooler makes search methods of orientation when he learns the world. The trial and error method takes a leading place in the early stages of a child’s development and is subsequently replaced by a method such as visual orientation.
The trial method is a practical orientation; however, it prepares the child for the orientation taking place internally.
Games and exercises develop children's attention to the properties and relationships of objects using the trial method. The ability to take properties into account in practical actions is developing. In the future, this improves visual perception.
The child must be taught to correctly perceive the surrounding world for full mental development. It is necessary to consolidate the received images of perception, to form representations on their basis. The child must be taught to correctly perceive the surrounding world for full mental development. It is necessary to consolidate the received images of perception, to form representations on their basis. However, the ideas become really clear only when they are combined with the name of the subject, determine its quality, attribute, action. Such a word can evoke a familiar representation at any time. This is an important part of correctional work with preschool children who have speech disorders. Visual images often exist in such children separately from the word, and the word is not associated with the visual image.
Therefore, it is difficult to overestimate the importance of the correct organization of games and exercises, which are aimed at combining the image of perception with the word, which subsequently affects the formation of ideas and correct speech.
The successful conduct of didactic games and exercises contributes to the pedagogical guidance of them. An important condition in this matter is the emotional side of the game. An adult should evoke a positive attitude of the child to the game with his behavior, emotional mood. Goodwill is important here. Thanks to it, cooperation appears that ensures the child’s desire to act together with an adult and achieve a positive result.
Compliance with the sequence in the selection of didactic games and exercises is an important condition for effective use. First of all, there should be repeatability, gradualness and repetition of tasks.
Conducting didactic games and exercises is of great importance in correctional work. They contribute to the development of auditory perception, which helps the child to navigate in the surrounding space. Games make it possible to act according to a verbal plan. Games and exercises for the development of auditory perception create the necessary prerequisites for the formation of speech. The creation of an imaginary situation and the occurrence of actions within the meaning are a distinctive feature of the role-playing game.
L.S.Vygotsky said that the child learns in the game to be aware of his own actions and understand that everything matters. Role and real relationships arise between children in the role-playing game, which stimulate communication. Reproduction of certain aspects of the surrounding reality in the game requires the active use of verbal means. They are used to designate objects, actions and relationships, which creates favorable conditions for the speech development of the child. The task of adults who surround the child is to organize the management of the game. This guide provides the most up-to-date capabilities available to him. The completeness of the development of the game and its educational value increase if the impact of educators is planned.
Theater games, gymnastics, finger theater are the main theatrical and gaming activities The main areas of speech therapy work in the theatrical game activity are the development of a culture of speech. It distinguishes methods of articulatory motility, phonetic perception, speech breathing, correct pronunciation of sounds. The development of stage skills and speech activity is another area of speech therapy work. It distinguishes the development of facial expressions, gestures, emotions, the grammatical structure of speech, the dialogical form of speech, gaming skills and creative independence. Finger Theater is an incentive for children and a means of creating speech situations. It is an important material in any speech therapy room. Training in the game is the most convenient and gentle training for children. The most timid children participate with pleasure in an educational game. The tale has a significant impact on the emotions of children. It causes surprise and a desire to learn. Children develop the ability to find solutions in non-standard situations, to discover new things and to realize their experience with the help of a fairy tale.
Outdoor games help children easily memorize many poetic texts. They contribute to the development of memory.
There are many games where you need to maintain facial expression and muscle tension in the body. This position depends on the specific signal. These are the games “Sea is worried”, “Stop” and others. There are games that are used to relax. For example, «Clockwork Toys», «Cat».
In such games, facial muscles are trained, which is important for the formation of speech and breathing.
The use of gaming technology does not require the mandatory organization of children's activities in a speech therapy room.
Creating a game situation may be in the free activity of children. For example, during a walk, in the classroom with a teacher, music director. Game technologies are the result of mastering the educational program of children with speech impairments in comparison with other pupils.
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