Презентация по английскому языку "London: history, places of interest, traditional ceremonies"
«КОНКУРС ПРЕЗЕНТАЦИЙ «Я МЫСЛЬЮ УЛЕЧУ К БРЕГАМ ТУМАННЫМ АЛЬБИОНА» СООБЩЕСТВО ВЗАИМОПОМОЩИ УЧИТЕЛЕЙ PEDSOVET.SU ПАВЛОВА ЖАННА НИКОЛАЕВНА, УЧИТЕЛЬ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА МАОУ «ГИМНАЗИЯ №1» Г. БРЯНСКА «LONDON: HISTORY, PLACES OF INTEREST, TRADITIONAL CEREMONIES»
N: HISTOR Y, PLACES OF INTERE ST TRADITION AL CEREMONI ES
LONDON IS A REGION IN THE UNITED KINGDOM Sovereign state United Kingdom Country – England Region – London Ceremonial counties – City and Greater London Districts City and 32 boroughs Settled by Romans as Londinium, c. AD 43 Headquarters City Hall Area 1,572.1 km2 (607 sq mi) Population (July 2010 est.) 7,825,200
London is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its founding by the Romans, who called it Londinium. Since at least the 19th century, the name London has also referred to the metropolis developed around this core. The bulk of this conurbation forms the London region and the Greater London administrative area, governed by the elected Mayor of London and the London Assembly.
PREHISTORY AND ANTIQUITY Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans in 43 AD. This lasted for just seventeen years and around 61, the Iceni tribe led by Queen Boudica stormed it, burning it to the ground. The next, heavily planned incarnation of the city prospered and superseded Colchester as the capital of the Roman province of Britannia in 100. At its height during the 2nd century, Roman London had a population of around 60,000. By the 7th century, the Anglo Saxons had created a new settlement called Lundenwic over a mile upstream from the old Roman city, around what is now Covent Garden.
MIDDLE AGES With the collapse of Roman rule in the early 5th century, London was effectively abandoned. However, from the 6th century an Anglo Saxon settlement known as Lundenwic, rising to a likely population of 10–12,000. In the 9th century London was repeatedly attacked by Vikings, leading to a relocation of the city back to the location of Roman Londinium, in order to use its walls for protection. Following the unification of England in the 10th century London, already the country's largest city and most important trading centre, became increasingly important as a political centre, although it still faced competition from Winchester, the traditional centre of the kingdom of Wessex.
WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR In 1066, England had a new King William the Conqueror, from France. He built a castle. We know it today as the Tower of London. At that time, London was the biggest and most important city in England.
In 1509, Henry the 8th was the king and there were 50,000 people in London. In 1600, when Elizabeth the First was the Queen, there were 200,000 people in London.
In 1665 there was a big plague in London. Fleas in rats caused the plague. More than 100,000 people died during the Big Plague. In 1666, there was a big fire “The Great Fire of London”. It started in a bakery. It lasted for 4 days and destroyed most of the buildings in London.
ST PAUL’S CATHEDRAL After the fire, a new St Paul’s cathedral was built by Sir Christpher Wren 1675 1711
THE 18TH CENTURY In the 18th Century, Britain was one of the most important countries in the world and London was its the most important city. Some Londoners were rich and they built some of the most beautiful houses. Many of them are still standing today. But, there were also many poor people in London.
QUEEN VICTORIA (1837 1901) She was one of the most important monarchs in British history. At that time many railways were built. People could travel by train. In 1851 there was the Great Exhibition at the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park. More than 6 million people came to the wonderful exhibits. In 1863, world first underground train began to run in London.
THE CRYSTAL PALACE IN HYDE PARK (LONDON, 1851)
20TH CENTURY During the Second World War (19391945), the German bombs destroyed many buildings in London, but they didn’t destroy St Paul’s Cathedral. Now, London has some of the world’s most exciting new buildings. Today people from all over the world live in London, where you can hear about 300 different languages.
BUCKINGHAM PALACE It’s the Queen’s home and her office. About 300 people work here. Heads of governments and royal visitors from around the world meet the Queen here. In August and September you can visit some of the rooms in the palace and some of the gardens.
THE CHANGING OF THE GUARD At halfpast eleven most mornings, the soldiers change the guard at Buckigham Palace. It takes about thirty minutes. Hundred of visitors come and watch it every day.
THE QUEEN’S GALLERY AND THE ROYAL MEWS
The Queen’s Gallery is in Buckingham Palace Road. It exhibits works of art from the Royal Collection.
THE ROYAL MEWS It is the home of the Queen’s horses and coaches
Kensington Palace has been home to the royal family for over 300 years and was where Diana Princess of Wales resided. It is in Hyde Park.
WINDSOR CASTLE Windsor is a small town, half an hour by train from London. There, you can visit Windsor Castle, the largest and oldest occupied castle in the world, is one of the official residences of Her Majesty The Queen. She goes there at the weekends.
Hampton Court is located on the bank of the River Thames in southwest London.
THE ROYAL PARADES On the second Saturday in June, London celebrates the Queen’s birthday with a big parade: The Trooping of the Colour.
The Queen opens the Parliament in November, when the British government begins to work for the year.
THE LORD MAYOR’S SHOW The Lord Mayor's Show is one of the best known annual events in London, which dates back to 1535. The Lord Mayor is that of the City of London, the historic centre of London that is now the financial district. A new Lord Mayor is appointed every year and the public parade reflects that the Lord Mayor is the most important person in London after the Queen.
The City is the oldest part of London. It is now the home of the bank of England and many other big offices. Half a million business people work in the City; but few people live there. One of the most popular buildings is known as “the Gherkin”.
THE TOWER OF LONDON It’s the oldest building in the city. In the past it was a palace and a prison. It was built by William, the Conqueror, around 1078. It is made up of There are 36 Yeoman 11 towers. At the centre is the Warders, or Beefeaters at white tower. the Tower. They tell the Some famous prisoners at the visitors about the Tower tower were Anne Boleyn, wife and its famous people of Henry, the 8th. Elizabeth 1st was also a prisoner in the tower. Today you can visit the Tower. You can see the Crown Jewel and visit the Bloody Tower.
TOWER BRIDGE It is more than 100 years old. When tall ships go up the river, the centre of the bridge opens
St Paul’s Cathedral is in The Monument, a building 60 metres high, is also in the the Centre of the City. Its city. It was built to dome is 110 metres high. The two bells in the tower remember the Great London Fire. It is near Pudding are called Great Paul and Lane, where the fire started. Great Tom, which rings when a king or queen dies.
WHITEHALL AND THE WESTMINSTER Whitehall is a long road, to the south of Trafalgar Square. Most of the buildings in this road are government officies. The Prime Minister lives at 10, Dowing Street. There are always two soldiers on horses outside Horse Guard Parade.
Westminster Abbey is London’s oldest and most famous church. English Kings and queens always have their coronation here from the time of William the Conqueror. Lots of important people, writers, scientists, queen and kings are buried here.
The Houses of Parliament is the home of the British Goverment. The clock high up in the Tower is called Big Ben; but really Big Ben is the bell in the clock.
BY THE RIVER THAMES You cannot see London without a visit to the river: you can walk along the river, go across its many bridges, or go in boat to see London from the river.
PARKS AND GARDENS Kensington Gardens is next to Hyde Park. Here you can see a statue of Peter Pan. There is also a playground called the Diana, Princess of Wales playground. Hyde Park was first opened in the 17th century. It is a beautiful park. You can walk or sit under the trees. There is a lake in the centre, called the Serpentine. People come to the Speaker’s Corner to tell the world about politics, religions. Some people come to listen.
Regent’s Park is the home of the London Zoo. It opened in 1828. There is also a theatre in the park. On summer’s evenings you can watch plays by Shakespeare. St James’s Park is a small park but very beautiful. It is the oldest of the Royal Park. Lots of birds live on and around the lake in the centre of the park.
MUSEUMS AND GALERIES The British Museum is the biggest museum in Britain and the oldest museum in the world (1759). You can learn about Greece, Rome, Egypt or Asian Cultures.
The National Gallery is in Trafalgar Square. A big art gallery with pictures from the 13th to the 20th century.
ИСТОЧНИКИ ИЛЛЮСТРАЦИЙ: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London London.gov.uk – Greater London Authority VisitLondon.com – Official London tourism site Transport for London (TfL) – city transport authority Museum of London London in British History Online, with links to numerous authoritative online sources Map of Early Modern London – Historical map and encyclopedia of Shakespeare's London Материалы поисковой системы Google
ИСТОЧНИКИ ТЕКСТОВОЙ ИНФОРМАЦИИ: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London Маркушевская Л.П. «Великобритания», учебное пособие по страноведению, СПб 2008 London.gov.uk – Greater London Authority VisitLondon.com Transport for London (TfL) Museum of London London in British History Online, Map of Early Modern London – Historical map and encyclopedia of Shakespeare's London
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Автор: Павлова Жанна Николаевна
09.07.2015 2 6695 1157
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